My understanding is that 8gb of memory is permanently soldered. That means you are limited to changing one stick and anything over an 8gb stick will operate in single channel mode at lower performance. I believe if you have a larger module the first 16gb of memory usage would be in dual channel mode since it can use both sticks. But once the soldered stick is full any additional memory usage goes to the larger stick in single channel mode.
So they come up with the 24GB number because the assumption is that you would use a 16GB stick + the 8GB of soldered memory. You probably can put a larger module in there but it will be a configuration untested and unsupported by ASUS.
Hope that helps.
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The sad part is, the 8 GB is a single sided memory module, while the 16 and 32 GB are Dual.
So my guess is, a Micron MTA8ATF2G64HZ-3G2__, for a grand total of 24 GB, and a Micron MTA16ATF4G64HZ-3G2__, for a grand total of 40 GB; would be the ones to use, to replace the single 8 GB Module with.
I hope this helps people.
PS - This is the memory modules which appear to have come on my Asus GA14QM. You will have to check on yours, just to make sure you have the same. If different, you'll have to look it up yourself.
Once again, I used the memory checker CrucialScan from Crucial Memory to check what memory sticks are in my Asus GA14QM. I tried using PassMark, but for some reason, it wouldn't work.